Why don’t most children get severely sick from COVID? Nose and immune response offer clues


By David Olson, October 23, 2023 10:50 Newsday Young children rarely get severely ill from COVID-19 because their immune systems seem to block the coronavirus from spreading beyond the nose, a new study suggests, and experts say kids’ response to the virus could help develop a more effective vaccine for people of all ages. Scientists long […]

The characteristics and evolution of pulmonary fibrosis in COVID-19 patients as assessed by AI-assisted chest HRCT


Authors: Jia-Ni Zou , Liu Sun , Bin-Ru Wang , You Zou , Shan Xu, Yong-Jun Ding, Li-Jun Shen, Wen-Cai Huang, Xiao-Jing Jiang, Shi-Ming Chen  Published: March 23, 2021 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0248957 Abstract The characteristics and evolution of pulmonary fibrosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not been adequately studied. AI-assisted chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was used to […]

Multi-layered transcriptomic analyses reveal an immunological overlap between COVID-19 and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with disease severity


Authors: Lena F. Schimkea,5, Alexandre H.C. Marquesa, Gabriela Crispim Baiocchia, Caroline Aliane de Souza Pradob Dennyson Leandro M. Fonsecab , Paula Paccielli Freirea , Desirée Rodrigues Plaçab , Igor Salerno Filgueirasa ,Ranieri Coelho Salgadoa, Gabriel Jansen-Marquesc, Antonio Edson Rocha liveirab, Jean PierreSchatzmann Perona, José Alexandre Marzagão Barbutoa,d, Niels Olsen Saraiva Camaraa, Vera Lúcia Garcia Calicha […]

Pathophysiology of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection: a systematic literature review to inform EULAR points to consider


Authors: Aurélie Najm1, http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1105-5640Alessia Alunno2, Xavier Mariette3,4, http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6612-7336Benjamin Terrier5,6, http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2406-161XGabriele De Marco7,8, Jenny Emmel9, Laura Mason9, Dennis G McGonagle7,10 and http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8411-7972Pedro M Machado11,12,13 Abstract Background The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a global health problem. Beside the specific pathogenic effect of SARS-CoV-2, incompletely understood deleterious and aberrant host immune responses play critical roles in severe disease. Our objective was to summarise the available information on the pathophysiology […]

Complement Anaphylatoxins and Inflammatory Cytokines as Prognostic Markers for COVID-19 Severity and In-Hospital Mortality


Authors: Bandar Alosaimi1,2, Ayman Mubarak3, Maaweya E. Hamed3, Abdullah Z. Almutairi4, Ahmed A. Alrashed5, Abdullah AlJuryyan6, Mushira Enani7,Faris Q. Alenzi8 and Wael Alturaiki9* COVID-19 severity due to innate immunity dysregulation accounts for prolonged hospitalization, critical complications, and mortality. Severe SARS-CoV-2 infections involve the complement pathway activation for cytokine storm development. Nevertheless, the role of complement in COVID-19 immunopathology, complement‐modulating treatment strategies against COVID-19, […]

Endothelial dysfunction contributes to COVID-19-associated vascular inflammation and coagulopathy


Authors: Jun Zhang 1, Kristen M Tecson 1, Peter A McCullough 1 2 3 Great attention has been paid to endothelial dysfunction (ED) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is growing evidence to suggest that the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor (ACE2 receptor) is expressed on endothelial cells (ECs) in the lung, heart, kidney, and intestine, particularly in systemic vessels (small and […]

Cytokine Storm in COVID-19: The Current Evidence and Treatment Strategies


Authors: Yujun Tang,† Jiajia Liu,† Dingyi Zhang, Zhenghao Xu, Jinjun Ji,* and Chengping Wen* Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) is the pathogen that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As of 25 May 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 has caused 347,192 deaths around the world. The current evidence showed that severely ill patients tend to have a high concentration of […]

SARS-CoV-2 infection: The role of cytokines in COVID-19 disease


Authors: Víctor J Costela-Ruiz 1, Rebeca Illescas-Montes 1, Jose M Puerta-Puerta 2, Concepción Ruiz 3, Lucia Melguizo-Rodríguez 1 COVID-19 disease, caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, is related to a series of physiopathological mechanisms that mobilize a wide variety of biomolecules, mainly immunological in nature. In the most severe cases, the prognosis can be markedly worsened by the hyperproduction of mainly proinflammatory cytokines, such as […]

Accumulating evidence suggests anti-TNF therapy needs to be given trial priority in COVID-19 treatment


Authors: Philip C Robinson, Duncan Richards, Helen L Tanner, Marc Feldmann The COVID-19 pandemic continues to wreak havoc on global health-care systems and to claim an increasing number of lives. Although some treatments have shown promise, including dexamethasone and remdesivir, problems remain with access to medication and high mortality despite treatment. Patient selection also appears […]