SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein 1 Activates Microvascular Endothelial Cells and Complement System Leading to Platelet Aggregation


Authors: Luca Perico 1, Marina Morigi 1, et. al.; 2022 Mar 7;13:827146. doi: 10.3389/fimmu. 2022.827146. eCollection 2022. Abstract Microvascular thrombosis is associated with multiorgan failure and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although thrombotic complications may be ascribed to the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect and replicate in endothelial cells, it has been poorly investigated whether, in the complexity of viral […]

C5aR1 signaling triggers lung immunopathology in COVID-19 through neutrophil extracellular traps


Bruna M. Silva,1,2 Giovanni F. Gomes,1 Flavio P. Veras,1 Seppe Cambier,3 Gabriel V.L. Silva,1,2 Andreza U. Quadros,1 Diego B. Caetité,1,2 Daniele C. Nascimento,1,2 Camilla M. Silva,1,2 Juliana C. Silva,1 Samara Damasceno,1 Ayda H. Schneider,1 Fabio Beretta,3 Sabrina S. Batah,4 Icaro M.S. Castro,5 Isadora M. Paiva,1 Tamara Rodrigues,1,2 Ana Salina,1,6 Ronaldo Martins,6,7 Guilherme C.M. Cebinelli,1,2 Naira L. Bibo,1 Daniel M. Jorge,6,7 Helder I. Nakaya,5 Dario S. Zamboni,1,6 Luiz O. Leiria,1,2 Alexandre T. Fabro,4 José C. Alves-Filho,1,2 Eurico Arruda,6,7 Paulo Louzada-Junior,1,8 Renê D. Oliveira,1,8 Larissa D. Cunha,1,6 Pierre […]

Complement Anaphylatoxins and Inflammatory Cytokines as Prognostic Markers for COVID-19 Severity and In-Hospital Mortality


Authors: Bandar Alosaimi1,2, Ayman Mubarak3, Maaweya E. Hamed3, Abdullah Z. Almutairi4, Ahmed A. Alrashed5, Abdullah AlJuryyan6, Mushira Enani7,Faris Q. Alenzi8 and Wael Alturaiki9* COVID-19 severity due to innate immunity dysregulation accounts for prolonged hospitalization, critical complications, and mortality. Severe SARS-CoV-2 infections involve the complement pathway activation for cytokine storm development. Nevertheless, the role of complement in COVID-19 immunopathology, complement‐modulating treatment strategies against COVID-19, […]

The complement system in COVID-19: friend and foe?


Authors: Anuja Java,1 Anthony J. Apicelli,2 M. Kathryn Liszewski,3 Ariella Coler-Reilly,3 John P. Atkinson,3 Alfred H.J. Kim,3 and Hrishikesh S. Kulkarni4 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a global pandemic and a disruptive health crisis. COVID-19–related morbidity and mortality have been attributed to an exaggerated immune response. The role of complement […]

Direct activation of the alternative complement pathway by SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins is blocked by factor D inhibition


Authors: Jia Yu, Xuan Yuan, Hang Chen, Shruti Chaturvedi, Evan M. Braunstein, Robert A. Brodsky Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly contagious respiratory virus that can lead to venous/arterial thrombosis, stroke, renal failure, myocardial infarction, thrombocytopenia, and other end-organ damage. Animal models demonstrating end-organ protection in C3-deficient mice and evidence of complement activation in humans have […]

Increased complement activation is a distinctive feature of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection


Authors: Lina Ma1, View ORCID ProfileSanjaya K. Sahu1, View ORCID ProfileMarlene Cano1, Vasanthan Kuppuswamy2, Jamal Bajwa1,3, View ORCID ProfileJa’Nia McPhatter1,4 Complement activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, it remains to be determined whether increased complement activation is a broad indicator of critical illness (and thus, no different in COVID-19). It is also unclear which […]

Sars cov 2 drives jak1 2 dependent local complement hyperactivation


Authors: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) present a wide range of acute clinical manifestations affecting the lungs, liver, kidneys and gut. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 2, the best-characterized entry receptor for the disease-causing virus SARS-CoV-2, is highly expressed in the aforementioned tissues. However, the pathways that underlie the disease are still poorly understood. Here, […]

Complement control for COVID-19


Authors: Markus Bosmann1,2,3,4,* The complement system is an integral part of innate immune defense. It consists of about 50 proteins in plasma, on cell surfaces, and inside host cells. The traditional view is that complement proteins guard the local extracellular spaces and systemic bloodstream against invading pathogens. Loss-of-function mutations resulting in terminal complement pathway deficiencies […]

COVID-19 cytokine storm: The anger of inflammation


Authors: Mehdi Mahmudpour 1, Jamshid Roozbeh 2, Mohsen Keshavarz 1, Shokrollah Farrokhi 3, Iraj Nabipour 4 Patients with COVID-19 who require ICU admission might have the cytokine storm. It is a state of out-of-control release of a variety of inflammatory cytokines. The molecular mechanism of the cytokine storm has not been explored extensively yet. The attachment of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 […]